19th May - Bolt lands Bronze

Silksworth's David Bolt has added a Atlantic Games bronze medal to his Commonwealth Games bronze, representing England in the triples and playing in th emiddle of Devon's Ian Lesley and Sam Tolchard they narrowly missed out on a final spot losing on an extra end 15-14 against Scotland's Darren Burnett. In the nine game round robin group the English trio only lost twice 18-11 to Argentina and 17-13 to the eventual gold medalist's South Africa. Seven wins however did secure a play off against Malta which duly won 25-9 only to miss out in the semi finals.

18th May - Muras Win

Our men’s Muras squad made a winning start to their three game campaign with a hard fought 16 shot win over Yorkshire at Dairy Lane. We had three debutee’s Silksworth’s Paul Hartley, Old Boy’s Bryan Henderson (jnr) and Dairy Lane’s Keith Carruthers. Across the green we notch three wins, a couple of draws and only suffered one loss in an 18-4 points return. Dale Oram steered his rink to a 24-14 win while Gary Farquhar got home 21-15, our third win was a 16-11 for Ian Riches. David Fenwick collected a last end single for a 17-17 while Paul Mosley fought back well to get a 19-19 draw. So a nice little start and next weekend it’s the double header over in Cumbria. rink details 

17th May - Stella Loss

Our Stella Logan squad made a losing start to their 2019 campaign, despite a spirited performance they were beaten 105-100 by Cumbria at Dalson. Across the green we had a couple of winning rinks, the pick of them being Hetton Workmen’s Karen Sinclair’s quartet of Kath Toulson (Darlington North Park), Jennifer Parkin (Norton) and Liz Morris (Horden) who ran out 30-9 winners, Horden’s Val Gray won 29-13 to give us a 37 shot advantage, sadly the remaining three rinks went down by a combined 42 shots, Shildon’s Esther Helm lost 21-17, Horden’s Jennie Smith lost 35-12 and Newton Halls Chris Budd went down 27-12. Points wise was a harsh looking 8-2 loss, next up is a new tie against Northumberland at Pelton Fell in two weeks time. rink details

15th May - Bowls England 2019 News

A bit of forward planning, here are three documents to help our National Championship hopeful's at Leamington Spa

2019 Womens Championship Leamington Spa Draw Details
2019 Men's Championship Leamington Spa Draw Details
2019 Competitors Guide for the Leamington Spa Bonanza

Bowls Development Alliance News - CALLING ALL CLUBS

You may or may not be aware that we recently (the BDA) announced an exciting new partnership with the National Federation of Women’s Institute (NFWI). The partnership aims to provide opportunities for WI members to get involved in the sport of bowls through our WOMEN CAN campaign. Currently, only 32% of the bowling club population in England are women and this campaign has been developed to increase that number to 45% by 2021 and of course bring more members to your bowls club.
The programme invites WIs and Federations to take part in a 6-week bowls programme, hosted by a bowls club like yours, local to the applicant WI. Members will be required to pay a small nominal weekly fee of £3 per person, per week to take part (payable to hosting club). 
Your club will need to identify someone to communicate with the local WI to make all the necessary arrangements
What is required from your club?

  • A friendly, welcoming approach
  • Capacity to host a WI group for 6 weeks (1-2hrs once a week for 6 weeks)
  • Club equipment to loan to the group (bowls)
  • Refreshments available for the group to purchase/ tea and coffee facilities
  • A coach or club activator to meet the group and support them through the 6-week programme
  • A relaxed dress code which allows the group to bowl in smart/casual clothes

We are now inviting all affiliated clubs to express an interest in hosting a WI group. This is not a guarantee that you will be selected to be part of a programme as there may not be any groups in your area, but we aim to get as many clubs involved as possible.
If you would like to put your club forward, please email or call Kara on 01664 777001 with your club name, location, key contact name and contact details including phone number and email address by no later then Monday 20th May 2019.
Once the deadline has passed Kara, our WOMEN CAN project lead, will start the process of putting the club contact in touch with the lead WI contact so that both parties can agree that best day/times for the group to come down to the club. We currently have over 125 WI Groups looking to get involved.
Thank you. - Latest Local Course News

Play Bowls Activator Module

The purpose of this 4 hour Play Bowls Activator Module (formally Play Bowls Introductory Module) is to equip both new and existing coaches and volunteers with some basic knowledge, information and skills to offer a fun, informal and relaxed introduction to the sport of Bowls. A new bowlerʼs first impression of the sport is often the difference between them taking up membership of the club or not.
This course will provide you with:
• Skills to welcome any new bowler into your club
• Confidence to organise an entertaining, relaxed and an enjoyable introductory session
• Ability to create a positive lasting impression




Places remaining


Booking Link

Ashbrooke Sports Club, Sunderland SR2 7HH,


10am - 2pm



Click here to book


11th May 2019 - Northern Trophy Win

Our Northern Trophy women made a winning start to their 2019 campaign, a cracking 106-105 win at Redcar over a Yorkshire outfit that did the double over us last season is a terrific effort. From the team selected in March we only had one change with Newton Hall’s Eileen Horan coming in for Mary McGee.

Across the green we had two winning rinks, the pick of them being the reliable quartet of Susan Forster, Lorraine Breheny, Glynis Morgan and Joan Rodgerson who ran out 26-9 winners, Woodland’s Ann Anderson was our other successful rink 23-17. Out of the four defeats, Stockton’s Teresa Parnell was unlucky to go down 20-19 and Hetton’s Norma Stephenson lost by only 4, Durham’s Joyce Woodward lost by 8 and Sunderland’s Sue Almond lost by 9 but we held on to a one shot win overall. Next up is a trip to Ponteland to face Northumberland in a fortnight. Rink details

14th April 2018 - Competition Updates

Here are the three main document's regarding the changes in the National Championships (County) and the National Competitions (Everything else)

Bowls England Competition Regulations 2019 (issued October 2018)

Summary of Changes to Regulations (as issued October 2018)

Summary of Rules 2019


I am contacting you directly to ask for your contribution to a major piece of research regarding our clubs that is being undertaken on behalf of Bowls England.

The purpose of this project is to provide Bowls England with comprehensive and robust evidence regarding the quality, adequacy, security and ownership management profile of all bowls clubs across the country. There is also an indoor project running concurrently which means this research will provide the most comprehensive information on flat green bowls ever gathered in England.

This information base will enable Bowls England to support clubs and county associations more effectively over the coming years, particularly with facility‐related enquiries, negotiations with local councils and grant funding applications.

Given the scope and ambition of this project, Bowls England has worked with sports consultancy firm 4global to develop a national survey. The survey is very comprehensive in its scope and we estimate it should take respondents around 30 minutes to complete. We appreciate this represents a significant amount of time for volunteers but we are confident that this investment will be an invaluable contribution to the future of bowls in this country and prevent many of the ‘ad hoc’ requests currently submitted to clubs and county associations regarding their clubs and members from various sources.

Again, I thank you in advance for your time and contribution to this work and we look forward to the opportunities and benefits its undertaking will provide in the future.

Please note, this survey is an online survey but you can pause and re‐start provided you do so using the same device (your phone, tablet, laptop etc.) and internet browser software (e.g. Internet Explorer, Firefox, Chrome, Safari) – this means you can close the window and restart later without losing your answers.

To access the survey, click here:

If you have any questions regarding this survey in the first instance, please contact Richard Boardman at 4global by e‐mail:

Yours sincerely

Tony Allcock MBE Chief Executive
Bowls England


Tickets are now on sale for the 2019 Atlantic Championships, which will take place in Wales next month.

The elite level sporting event will be hosted at four venues across Cardiff and the Vale of Glamorgan between 10th and 23rd May with a record-breaking number of international teams entered to participate.

The greens at Barry Athletic, Dinas Powys, Penarth Windsor and Penylan will all be utilised, with the full schedule available to view on the Welsh Bowls website. 

Spectator tickets start from just £5 per day and offer the opportunity to experience the excitement of world-class live bowls. Day tickets allow you to visit any of the four venues to watch any match on the date of that ticket.

A 14-day Tournament Pass, priced at £50 (a saving of £30) is available for total flexibility and access to any game at any venue throughout the tournament - including playoffs and finals. 

Bowls England will be represented at the Atlantic Championships by the following players:

Men’s Singles: Jamie Walker (Northamptonshire)
Men’s Pairs: Steve Mitchinson (Essex) & Jamie Walker (Northamptonshire)
Men’s Triples: Ian Lesley (Devon), David Bolt (Durham) & Sam Tolchard (Devon) 
Men’s Fours: Steve Mitchinson (Essex), Ian Lesley (Devon), David Bolt (Durham) & Sam Tolchard (Devon)

Women’s Singles: Natalie Chestney (Devon)
Women’s Pairs: Rebecca Wigfield (Northamptonshire) & Natalie Chestney (Devon)
Women’s Triples: Jamie-Lea Winch (Leicestershire), Lorraine Kuhler (Sussex) & Sian Honnor (Kent)
Women’s Fours: Jamie-Lea Winch (Leicestershire), Rebecca Wigfield (Northamptonshire), Lorraine Kuhler (Sussex) & Sian Honnor (Kent)

To purchase your ticket/s, or for more information, visit:

17th March - Safeguarding Bowls Info

Bowls England provides a bursary in support of members of affiliated clubs who wish to attend a relevant safeguarding course.

Note to all clubs that if they need assistance to contact any of the County Officers and/or District Secretaries.

Here is a link to the Bursary application form

The Safeguarding Bowls website can be accessed via this link -

16th March - Bowls England Update

Bowls England is now in the position to advise further regarding qualification for the 2019 Bowls England National Championships.

‘C’ Representatives
All counties with five per cent or more of the total number of entries in that National Championship from the previous year will be entitled to three representatives at the National Championships.

Below is a table outlining the counties that have reached the required number of entries for a third representative at the 2019 National Championships in each Championship event.

Championship Event

Men – Number of entries required in 2019

Counties that have received a ‘C’ in 2019
(See Regulation 3.1)

Women – Number of entries required in 2019

Counties that have received a ‘C’ in 2019
(See Regulation 3.1)



Devon, Essex, Hampshire, Kent, Surrey


Cornwall, Devon, Essex, Kent, Surrey

Two Wood Singles


Cornwall, Devon, Hampshire, Kent, Surrey


Essex, Kent, Surrey



Essex, Hampshire, Kent, Surrey


Devon, Essex, Hampshire, Kent, Surrey



Devon, Essex, Kent, Surrey


Devon, Essex,  Hampshire, Kent, Surrey, Sussex



Essex, Kent, Surrey


Devon, Essex, Hampshire, Kent, Surrey

Men's National Junior Singles Championship
One county (Isle of Wight) submitted no entries for the 2019 Men’s National Junior Singles Championship therefore they will not be represented at the National Finals.

  • The next four counties with the lowest number of entries for the 2019 Men’s National Junior Singles Championship are Derbyshire, Herefordshire, Lancashire and Northumberland. Each of these counties will receive just one entry for the National Championship finals.
  • All other counties will have two qualification places.

Men’s National Junior Pairs Championship
One county (Isle of Wight) submitted no entries for the 2019 Men’s National Junior Pairs Championship therefore they will not be represented at the National Finals.

  • All other counties will receive one entry for the National Championship finals.

Women’s National Junior Singles Championship
Three counties submitted no entries for the 2019 Women’s National Junior Singles Championship therefore they will not be represented at the National Finals. These are Isle of Wight, Lancashire and Nottinghamshire.

  • Three counties submitted one entry for the 2019 Women’s National Junior Singles Championship therefore they will have one representative at the National Finals. These are Derbyshire, Northumberland and Yorkshire.
  • All other counties will have two qualification places.

Women’s National Junior Pairs Championship
Eight counties submitted no entries for the 2019 Women’s National Junior Pairs Championship therefore they will not be represented at the National Finals. These are Derbyshire, Durham, Isle of Wight, Lancashire, Northumberland, Nottinghamshire, Suffolk and Yorkshire.

  • All other counties will receive one entry for the National Championship finals.

We trust this information is of assistance to you. It is anticipated that the National Championship draws will be circulated to County Associations not later than w/c Monday 6th May.

15th March 2019 - Bowls England Update

The Bowls Development Alliance, Bowls England, English Indoor Bowling Association, Disability Bowls England and Activity Alliance are working to provide clubs with relevant support and guidance to ensure they have the capacity to provide access to their facilities and activities for current and future members – regardless of ability or personal circumstances.

Nationally, 43 per cent of people over the age of 65 are reported to have at least one impairment, with the percentage increasing to 75 per cent for those over the age of 80. We expect a significant number of club members to have a health condition that would affect their bowling, although it might not necessarily be considered as a ‘disability’.

It is essential for us to get an understanding of the most common challenges in order to know how best to support clubs in the future. Therefore, we are asking clubs to complete this survey to help us find out the biggest and most common challenges.
If a club does not hold sufficient information to complete the survey, we would ask them to provide us with an educated estimate based on your best knowledge of your current facilities and membership.

To access the survey click on this link:

Should any clubs have queries regarding this survey please contact George Babalev (BDA Club Development Co-ordinator) at:

The closing date for responses is Sunday 7th April.

9th February 2019

You may recall that over the past twelve months or so we wrote to all clubs offering to provide advice and guidance to affiliated clubs on behalf of the County Association, so far as the potential impact that cuts in local authority leisure service provision may have on clubs in the forthcoming years. This included the services and advice that are available from Bowls England and the Bowls Development Alliance to assist clubs on topics ranging from grants/loans, coaching and umpires to club development issues including the attraction of new members.

We have been in recent discussions with the Bowls Development Alliance about the implementation of the club development programme in the County not only for those clubs that are suffering because of the reduction in service provision and loss of membership but  also for those clubs wishing to expand their membership base.

Therefore attached for your information and attention details of the Development Programme which we would encourage you to read and consider adopting. We have already two clubs (Consett Park and Lyndhurst) who have participated with great success, the latter winning the coveted Bowls England Club of the Year title. Details of the scheme are also on the County Website.

If you need any help or advice please contact either the county secretary or Anna Coulson at the BDA or speak to the successful clubs.

Here are the links to the Programme Application Form and Programme Guidance Notes

8th February 2019

(John Bell photo courtesy of Bowls England)

John Bell has announced his retirement as Bowls England Men’s Senior International Team Manager after almost two decades of loyal and dedicated service. Bell was appointed Men’s International Team Manager in 2000, a position he held for 17 BIBC Series’, four World Championships, and two Atlantic Championships, in addition to the position of Performance Director at three Commonwealth Games and one Atlantic Championships.

Under Bell’s guidance at world level, England attained an impressive 371 victories from 522 matches at a win rate of 71%, achieving 39 medals in the process, including 14 at the Commonwealth Games. Announcing his retirement, Bell said: “It is with somewhat of a heavy heart that I announce my retirement from the position as the Men’s Senior England Team Manager. There are a number of reasons for this decision but suffice it to say after 20 years as a Team Manager and Performance Director I feel the time is right to step aside.

“I would like to think that during my period of office I have done my utmost to ensure our England teams performed to the best of their abilities and enhanced their reputation, and that of Bowls England, on the world stage. I am also proud that the conduct of our England teams both on and off the greens has been exemplary. “I fully support the appointment of a permanent Performance Director, who will herald the introduction of a new structure to support and hopefully enhance international performance. My retirement will enable the Performance Director to commence their duties with a clean slate with a new support team going forward. They have my full support.

“I have been fortunate to have had the benefit of the assistance and friendship of many talented colleagues who I sincerely thank. To Tony Allcock and everyone in the Bowls England office, my fellow selectors, members of my Commonwealth Games management teams, to the incredibly supportive Norma Hazzledine, who was fully committed to the cause of improving England’s international performance, and to Rex Hazeldine too for his encouragement and his professionalism which inspired us all - I thank you. “I will also thank my supporter in chief – Mrs Bell – over a glass of red, or possibly two, and a nostalgic curry at the Paprika Club!  

“I have thoroughly enjoyed my tenure as Bowls England Manager and as Commonwealth Games Performance Director. It has been a pleasure and a privilege undertaking my role and I hope I have contributed to a positive and successful chapter in the performance of England teams at world and international events. “I wish Bowls England every success in its future efforts to achieve further glory at international level.”

 Bowls England Chief Executive, Tony Allcock MBE, added: “John’s commitment to Bowls England and the English Bowling Association over the past two decades has been exemplary. He has ensured that England is a force to be reckoned with at an international level and his record speaks for itself. John has been a credit to work with and will certainly be a tough act to follow.”  

Bowls England wishes to thank John for his dedication both to his country and the sport of bowls. An advertisement for John’s successor will be circulated shortly.

7th February 2019

The revisions to the Laws of the Sport which were approved at World Bowls Council Meetings in December 2016 and April 2018 have been incorporated into the ‘Crystal Mark Third Edition’ to create Version 3.1 of that document. A copy of both Version 3.1 and a document containing the Revisions can be downloaded from the ‘Laws of the Sport’ section under the ‘Laws & Umpiring Link’ on the World Bowls website:  

The section has also been updated to provide an explanation of the Laws review and approval process. Your attention is drawn to the final paragraph in the section which explains what Laws and Laws-related documents individuals should have in their possession whilst participating in the sport. As a by-product of the creation of Version 3.1 of the Laws, the text associated with the ‘WB Laws Decisions’ section under the ‘Laws & Umpiring Link’ on the WB website has been updated and the Revisions approved in 2016 and 2018 have been removed.

Here are the revisions in version 3.1.....(we have also downloaded a copy of the full rule book HERE )

Revisions to the ‘Laws of the Sport – Crystal Mark Third Edition’ The ‘Laws of the Sport of Bowls – Crystal Mark Third Edition’ was approved at a World Bowls Council Meeting in August 2014. Subsequent revisions to the Third Edition were approved at World Bowls Council Meetings in December 2016 and April 2018.
World Bowls Council Meeting – December 2016
The following revisions were approved.

Law D2 Bias side of a bowl: the side of the bowl that is the more rounded of the two sides, which is identified by the small grooved rings surrounding its centre.

Law 52.1.3 Each set of bowls can carry a player’s individual emblem, logo or engraving as a distinguishing mark on both sides of every bowl. The distinguishing marks must be the same design and colour on each bowl, but can be different in size. The distinguishing mark on the bias side of the bowl must be inside the smallest grooved ring surrounding its centre. If there are grooved rings surrounding the centre of the non-bias side, the distinguishing mark must be inside the smallest ring. If there are no grooved rings surrounding the centre of the non-bias side, the distinguishing mark must be inside the indentations designed to help the player grip the bowl during delivery. As well as the distinguishing marks, each set of bowls can carry a player’s name or signature. Imprints on the running surfaces of bowls must be avoided.

all bowls belonging to players within a team or side must have these markings on them and the markings must all be the same design and colour. However, players may use markings which are different in size from those used by other players in their team or side where this is necessary due to differences in the sizes of either the manufacturers’ rings or the distinguishing marks on the bowls.

Law 53.1
Licensed Manufacturers and Licensed Testers are entitled to imprint the registered World Bowls Stamp on the bias side of bowls. Imprints on the running surfaces of bowls must be avoided wherever possible.

World Bowls Council Meeting – April 2018 The following revisions were approved.
Law measure between 112 millimetres and 134 millimetres across at their widest points; and
Law measure between 112 millimetres and 131 millimetres across at their widest points; and

4th February 2019


The creation of a new marquee international bowls event will see the Australian Jackaroos face a composite team made up of the world's premier players, to be staged at Moama Bowling Club in November, 2019. The World Bowls Challenge, announced jointly by World Bowls and Bowls Australia, will feature Australia v Rest of the World in an exciting ten-a-side format played across November 29 and 30, on the covered surfaces of the state-of-the-art Moama Bowling Club, fresh off multi-million-dollar renovations.

World Bowls President John Bell will assume the duties of Coach of the Rest of the World, while the architect behind the Jackaroos' success in recent years, National Coach Steve Glasson OAM, will take the reins of the Australian team. Australia is unquestionably the most in-form nation on the global stage, having secured four gold, two silver and one bronze medal from eight disciplines at the most recent World Bowls Championships in 2016, in addition to five gold and two silvers from 10 disciplines at the 2018 Commonwealth Games.

It is envisaged that the event will be staged every two years with each subsequent new host nation then forming the side to contest the might of the rest of the world. Unsurprisingly, the competition format will deviate from tradition, with sets-play matches and sessions staged across two days, in order to bolster its appeal to audiences.The event will begin with mixed triples, followed by men’s pairs, women’s pairs, then mixed pairs, and conclude with ten singles matches (five men’s singles matches and five women’s singles matches) staged across staggered starts.

The announcement of the inaugural World Bowls Challenge at Moama Bowling Club continues Australia’s trend of procuring the sport's eminent International events.Over the next two years, Adelaide Bowling Club will host the 2019 and 2020 World Singles Champion of Champions, Warilla Bowls and Recreation Club will stage the 2019 World Cup, and Broadbeach Bowls Club, Club Helensvale and Musgrave Hill Bowls Club will jointly host the 2019 Asia Pacific Championships and 2020 World Bowls Championships.

Further announcements regarding the World Bowls Challenge team compositions, Coach and Captain selections, scheduling and viewing details will be made over the coming months.

23rd January 2019


Bowls England can now confirm the host venues for the Inter-County Competition Regional Finals for the next two years. 

Balcomb Trophy (Sunday 23rd June 2019 and Sunday 21st June 2020)
North: York RI BC, Yorkshire
East: Maulden BC, Bedfordshire
South: Old Coulsdon BC, Surrey
West: Clevedon BC, Somerset

Walker Cup (Sunday 14th July 2019 and Sunday 12th July 2020)
North: York RI BC, Yorkshire
East: Kingsthorpe BC, Northamptonshire
South: Bromley BC, Kent
West: Box BC, Wiltshire

White Rose Trophy (Sunday 16th June 2019 and Sunday 14th June 2020)
North: Middlesbrough BC, Yorkshire
East: Parkway BC, Huntingdonshire
South: Cranleigh BC, Surrey
West: West Backwell BC, Somerset

7th January 2019


Many congratulations to Silksworth’s David Bolt on being named in the team to compete at the 2019 Atlantic Championships in Cardiff from 10th May to 23rd May 2019.

The full team is as follows

David Bolt (Durham), Ian Lesley (Devon), Steve Mitchinson (Essex), Sam Tolchard (Devon) and Jamie Walker (Northamptonshire)
Reserves: Tristan Morton (Huntingdonshire) and Andrew Walters (Worcestershire)
Natalie Chestney (Devon), Sian Honnor (Kent), Lorraine Kuhler (Sussex), Rebecca Wigfield (Northamptonshire) and Jamie-Lea Winch (Leicestershire)
Reserves: Katherine Hawes (Oxfordshire) and Laura Holden (Somerset)

6th January 2019

Please find a list below of the upcoming locally based Coach Bowls courses including coaching, safeguarding, working with disabled & play bowls activator module.

Further information can be found at , including how to book onto the courses.

Event Name

Event Date




Booked Places

Places left

Working with Disabled People in Bowls Module - Thornaby IBC


Thornaby IBC


TS17 9EW



Play Bowls Activator Module - Darlington South Park BC


Darlington South Park BC









Bowls England is delighted to announce that affiliated clubs can sign up to the Civil Liability Insurance scheme and take advantage of up to 15 months cover for the price of 12. 

Our insurance scheme runs from 1st April until 31st March.  In normal circumstances, the annual premium would be charged when joining mid-term.

However, if you join from now until 31st March 2019, the scheme insurers Allianz Insurance plc, will waive the costs for this period.

This is subject to you renewing the policy on 1st April 2019 for the full 12 month period.

Annual Premiums for:
·         £5,000,000 Civil Liability, including £10,000,000 Employers Liability is £93.00 (including Bowls England’s administration fee of £18.00)
·         £10,000,000 Civil Liability, including £10,000,000 Employers Liability is £118.00 (including our fee)
 When things happen that are out of your control, it’s important to have the right insurance in place – protecting you, your club and your members from the unexpected. 
Bowls England has entrusted Sutton Winson to provide Civil and Employers Liability Protection to its affiliated clubs and organisations. This policy, amongst other benefits, includes: 
v  Wider protection than a standard public liability policy, as it includes professional liability, abuse, libel/slander and Officers Liability (including Trustees)
v  Employers Liability included as standard to cover all employees AND VOLUNTEERS
v  Unique scheme only available to Bowls England affiliated Clubs and organisations
v  Compensation associated with injuries, litigation and negligence
v  No policy excess
v  No additional hidden fees
v  Option to increase the Civil Liability limit to £10m (as requested by some local authorities)
 The 2019/20 Bowls England Civil Liability Protection Brochure is attached, which provides an overview of our scheme. To commence a policy please fully complete the attached form and return it to Bowls England with the appropriate payment for the 2019/20 twelve month cover. 

If you would like to discuss further, please contact John Hughes at Bowls England on 01926 334609 or email



| Copyright@BowlsDurham | Site last updated on: May 19, 2019 8:19 PM